Over 2014 and 2015 many countries, businesses and civil society groups advocated for the Paris agreement to translate the 1.5ºC and 2ºC temperature limits into a long-term goal that gives operational guidance and sets a common direction of travel by acting as a “north star” of climate policy to reduce emissions and enhance resilience. Whilst the terminology varies between countries, the phasing out of fossil fuel emissions to achieve deep decarbonisation of the world’s economy are common points of reference. This unity of purpose translated into concrete political action at COP21 in Paris during December 2015. The Paris Agreement that all Parties to the UNFCCC agreed to, contains the long-term goal of reaching net zero in the second half of the 21st century in order to ensure maximum global temperature rise is kept well below 2ºC and pathways to 1.5ºC are kept open.

Article 2 of the Paris Agreement:

This Agreement, in enhancing the implementation of the Convention, including its objective, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, including by:

“Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change”

Article 4 of the Paris Agreement:

“In order to achieve the long-term temperature goal set out in Article 2, Parties aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking will take longer for developing country Parties, and to undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with best available science, so as to achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century, on the basis of equity, and in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty.”

Developed and developing, rich and poor, those with natural resources and those without have all embraced the need for a unifying and universal goal of net zero in this unprecedented global agreement. The history of the support from countries for a long-term goal is demonstrated in the statements Track 0 has tracked below.

At the ADP Ministerial Meeting held in Bonn in June 2014, around 60 countries expressed support for the long-term goal of ‘decarbonization’, ‘net zero emissions’ or ‘carbon neutrality’. By October 2015, that number grew to 124 countries, with an increasing number of leaders from some of the worlds largest economies expressing their support for the long-term goal. This included the G7 communiqué from the June 2015 Leaders Summit, the US-China Joint Statement and the Germany- Brazil Joint Statement on climate change, and the China-France Joint-Presidential Communiqué on climate change containing multiple references to a ‘long term transition to a low carbon, climate-resilient sustainable development’.

COP21 in Paris proved that the political will to decarbonise the global economy was universal, with the historic Paris Agreement setting out a long-term goal of net zero that all countries will contribute to achieving in the coming decades. Track 0 has been tracking countries statements at the UN and in their ‘intended nationally determined contributions’ to the UNFCCC, detailed below.

  1. Table 1: A summary table of the total numbers of countries supporting a long-term goal up to 1st November 2015)
  2. Table 2: Countries and political groups statements of support for a long-term goal up to November 2015
  3. Table 3: Qualitative or quantitative visions for long-term decarbonisation in the INDC’s submitted to the UNFCCC up to 1st November 2015

Download Track 0’s tracking briefing from November 2015 here, and the tracking briefing of long-term goals in INDCs here.

Summary of Countries supporting inclusion of Long Term Goal in Paris Agreement

Political Groups Numbers of Countries
AOSIS – Alliance of Small Island States 44
LDCs – Least Developed Countries 48 (9 members also in AOSIS)
EU – European Union 28
AILAC – Independent Association of Latin American and the Caribbean 7
G7 – France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, USA, EU 7 (5 members also in the EU)
Other countries (Brazil, China, Georgia, Iceland, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Switzerland) 11
TOTAL : 124 Countries
Nearly two thirds of the 195 parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change support the inclusion of the long-term mitigation goal in the 2015 Paris Agreement.


Countries and political groups statements of support for a long-term goal

Political Groups Group Position
AOSIS – Alliance of Small Island States (44 Countries)
1.American Samoa 2.Antigua and Barbuda 3.Bahamas
4. Barbados 5.Belize 6. Cape Verde 7.Comoros 8.Cook Islands 9.Cuba 10. Dominica 11.Dominican Republic 12.Federated States of Micronesia 13.Fiji 14.Grenada 15.Guam 16.Guinea Bissau 17.Guyana 18. Haiti 19.Jamaica 20. Kiribati 21.Maldives 22.Mauritius 23.Marshall Islands 24.Nauru 25.Netherlands Antilles 26.Niue 27.Palau 28.Papua New Guinea 29.Puerto Rico 30.Saint Kits 27.Saint Lucia 31.Saint Vincent & The Grenadines 32.Samoa 33. Sao Tome & Principe 34.Seychelles 35.Singapore 36.Suriname 37.Tonga 38.Trinidad & Tobago 39.US Virgin Islands40.Solomon Islands41.Timor Leste42. Tonga 43.Tuvalu 44.Vanuatu

“To ensure the survival of SIDs we have to keep the global rise in temperature by the end of the century to 1.5oC within this century, this will require significant cuts in emissions of GHGs, the only way to achieve this is deep decarbonisation of the economies of the major emitters of carbon dioxide. Help must be provided to countries like mine, which are keen to play their part in the march towards carbon neutrality to move away from our dependence on fossil fuels for energy.” Prime Minister Anthony of St Lucia, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th September 2015

“Once we make our international commitments, we will take action at the national level. International agreements are the start but unilateral commitments on the INDCs – even by small island developing states in the Pacific region – are critical to our long-term goal of achieving the below 1.5 degree pathway. No country is too small or to big to make a contribution towards our shared objective of a global decarbonised economy by 2050.” Prime Minister Bainimarama, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th September 2015

“It is the position of SIDs that to put the world onto a 1.5oC pathway, the Paris agreement must establish a global legally binding framework with commitments strong enough to reverse present upward emissions trends by 2020 and to ensure fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the energy and industrial sectors are reduced to zero by 2050.” Minister of Environment & Housing for the Bahamas, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th Sept 2015

“Express grave concern that the continued increase in the production of fossil fuels, particularly the construction of new coal mines, undermines efforts to reduce global GHG emissions and the goal of decarbonising the global economy;

– Reiterate our commitment to the advancement of our national mitigation strategies and low carbon economies and net carbon sink status, as part of the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions;
– We the Leaders of the Pacific Islands Development Forum, …call for:- the 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement to limit global average temperature increase to below 1.50C above pre-industrial levels in order to transition towards deep decarbonization;” Suva Declaration on Climate Change, 2-4TH September 2015, Pacific Islands Development Forum (28 member states all existing members of AOSIS)

“The findings from the recent technical report from the Structured Expert Dialogue of the 2013-2015 Review should give us all very serious cause for concern: 2 degrees of warming is associated with very high risks that are incompatible with the objectives of the Convention. That said, the report confirms that limiting warming to well below 1.5 degrees C is still feasible, but requires early peaking and sharp reductions in global emissions. The science of the IPCC WG3 and 2014 UNEP Gap Report further shows that zero global GHG emissions would be needed by 2060-2080. To that end, the view of the most vulnerable countries, and the majority of Parties to the Convention is the right one – a 1.5 degree limit must be a part of the Paris agreement for the sake of present and future generations.” Opening Statement, ADP Bonn, 3 June 2015

“Ensuring significant and rapid global greenhouse gas emission reductions of at least 70-95 per cent below 2010

levels by 2050 and negative emissions of CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases before 2080;” Section C Para.5, Option (d) of the ADP Paris negotiating text, February 2015, FCCC/ADP/2015/1

“We find it very important and worthwhile that paragraph 13 (a) refers to the need for long-term decarbonisation pathways. These are critical for getting on track towards our agreed long-term goal. More specifically…We are very keen and happy to see the reference to net zero emissions and/or full decarbonisation by 2050, which the latest science is telling us is necessary to achieve our long-term goal.”
Statement delivered by Nauru, on behalf of the 44 members of the Alliance of Small Island States, at the Lima Conference Of the Parties (COP) 20, Ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform (ADP) negotiations, 3rd November 2014

LDCs – Least Developed Countries (48 Countries)
1.Afghanistan 2.Angola
3.Bangladesh 4.Benin 5.Bhutan
6.Burkino Faso 7.Burundi
8.Cambodia 9.Central African Republic 10.Chad 11.Comoros 12.D.R. Congo 13.Djibouti 14.Equatorial Guinea 15.Eritrea 16.Ethiopia 17.Gambia 18.Guinea 19.Guinea Bissau 20.Haiti* 21.Kiribati* 22.Lao P.D.R 23.Lesotho 24.Liberia
25.Madagascar 26.Malawi 27.Mali 28.Mauritania 29.Mozambique 30.Myanmar 31.Nepal 32.Niger 33.Yemen 34.Rwanda 35.Sao Tome & Principe 36.Senegal 37.Sierra Leone 38.Solomon Islands* 39.Somalia 40.South Sudan 41.Sudan 42.Tanzania 43.Timor Leste* 44.Togo 45.Tuvalu* 46.Uganda 47.Vanuatu* 48.Zambia*These 6 countries are also members of AOSIS

“A ‘Strong direction of travel’ preferences Art.2 of convention & 1.5oC; this pathway should take us towards net zero emissions by 2050.” Angola, on behalf on LDCs at UNFCCC ADP Session, September 2015

Uganda called for “a LTG for mitigation and adaptation in the Paris Agreement”. UN Presidents General Assembly June 29th 2015, New York

Tanzania emphasised the importance of text on “emissions peaking for developed countries in 2015, with an aim of net zero emissions by 2050 in the context of equitable access to sustainable development,”. Tanzania proposed text specifying these efforts be quantitative and time-bound for developed countries and aspirational for developing countries. Statement to the ADP, Geneva, 16th Feb 2015

“Mr. President…. the LDCs are still optimistic on achieving a climate neutral future before the end of the century. Our Group understands that, in our journey of combating the climate crisis and reaching a climate neutral world, we must make the right choices here in Lima and next year in Paris. We have a historical opportunity to make things right through the new Paris Protocol.”

Statement delivered by Dr. Govinder Raj Pokhrel, Vice Chair, National Planning Commission, Nepal on behalf of 48 countries of LDC Group, Dec 2014

Total emissions need to reach zero between 2060 and 2080.  This means we need urgent actions by all countries to reduce emissions.”Statement made by Uganda on behalf of LDCs, ADP Ministerial, June 2014

EU – European Union (28 Member States)
1. Austria 2.Belgium 3.Bulgaria 4.Croatia 5.Cyprus 6.Czech Republic 7.Denmark 8.Estonia 9.Finland 10.France 11.Germany 12.Greece 13.Hungary 14.Ireland 15.Italy 16.Latvia 17.Lithuania 18.Luxembourg 19.Malta 20.Netherlands 21.Poland 22.Portugal 23.Romania 24.Slovakia 25.Slovenia 26.Spain 27.Sweden 28.United Kingdom

“The G7 summit in summer was an important step towards a low carbon development pathway with Paris in mind we agreed to strive for a decarbonisation of the global economy over the course of the century. Moving away from fossil fuels is a major transformation for Germany too but what have seen is that our LTG has become a major economic driver. We will need a long-term orientation for a successful Paris Agreement. Let Paris be the starting point for a low-carbon climate-resilient transition.” German Minister for Environment, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 26th Sept 2015

“…we have set ourselves the goal of ensuring that the peak of emissions is in 2020, that there is a reduction by

50% in 2050, and close to zero by 2100, which will allow us to level the temperature rise at below 2 degrees.” Prime Minister Bettel of Luxembourg, Statement at the UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 26th September 2015


“In Paris at the end of the year we want to adopt an ambitious climate agreement which obliges all states to do more for climate protection. This agreement would fix the framework for a sustainable development path to keep global warming below 2 degrees. For this we need a shared global vision of how to obtain global decarbonisation at the global level before the end of the century.” Chancellor Merkel of Germany, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th September 2015

The Council of the European Union,

STRESSES that, consistent with recent IPCC findings, in order to stay below 2°C, global greenhouse gas emissions need to peak by 2020 at the latest, be reduced by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 1990 and be near zero or below by 2100; in this context, WELCOMES the Leaders’ declaration at the G7 Summit in June 2015 and EMPHASISES that all Parties should pursue transformative pathways towards a long-term vision of global and sustainable climate neutrality and climate resilience in the second half of this century.

PROPOSES that the internationally legally-binding Paris Agreement: provide a long-term vision of the needed transformation towards low-emission and climate-resilient economies over the course of this century;” Statement of the position of the EU ahead of COP21, 18th September 2015

Luxembourg stated the need for a long-term vision that will take place in stages: 60% by 2050 and net zero by the end of the century. UN PGA June 29th 2015, New York

The EU on behalf of 28 countries at the UNFCCC ADP in Geneva, February 2015 stated the need for a long-term vision that will take place in stages: 60% by 2050 and net zero by the end of the century. UN PGA June 29th 2015, New York


“Scenarios consistent with a likely chance of achieving the below 2ºC objective require GHG emissions in 2050 to be 40% to 70% lower than levels in 2010, and with net emissions levels near zero, or below, in 2100.” The EU on behalf of 28 countries at the UNFCCC ADP in Geneva, February 2015

“The 2015 agreement should…set out a long-term goal that, in line with the findings of the IPCC ensures an aggregate emission pathway consistent with having at least a likely chance of ensuring that the 2ºC objective is achieved.” EU Submission 28th May 2014

AILAC – Independent Association of Latin American and the Caribbean
(6 Countries)
1. Chile 2. Colombia 3. Costa Rica 4. Dominican Republic

5. Guatemala 6. Panama

“Commitment cycles, as well as a specific long‐term emissions trajectory in line with the latest recommendations of the IPCC, a definition of a long‐term qualitative goal on finance and a global adaptation goal will also be critical to securing an ambitious and durable agreement.” Guatemala on behalf of AILAC, UNFCCC ADP Session, September 2015

AILAC has expressed support for the inclusion of a long-term goal in the Paris Agreement, along the lines of setting a goal to achieve low carbon “and possibly carbon neutrality” by mid-century to stay below 2ºC

G7 (7 countries)
1. France 2. Germany 3. Italy 4. Japan 5. UK 6. USA 7. EU “The agreement should enhance transparency and accountability including through binding rules at its core to track progress towards achieving targets, which should promote increased ambition over time. This should enable all countries to follow a low-carbon and resilient development pathway in line with the global goal to hold the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C.

Mindful of this goal and considering the latest IPCC results, we emphasize that deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required with a decarbonisation of the global economy over the course of this century. Accordingly, as a common vision for a global goal of greenhouse gas emissions reductions we support sharing with all parties to the UNFCCC the upper end of the latest IPCC recommendation of 40 to 70 % reductions by 2050 compared to 2010 recognizing that this challenge can only be met by a global response. We commit to doing our part to achieve a low-carbon global economy in the long-term including developing and deploying innovative technologies striving for a transformation of the energy sectors by 2050 and invite all countries to join us in this endeavor. To this end we also commit to develop long term national low-carbon strategies.”

   7-8TH June 2015 Statement

Other countries supporting the long-term goal

“Six years ago, in 2009, Bhutan made a pledge to remain carbon neutral. We have kept this promise. In fact, we

have exceeded it, as in reality we are carbon negative. We are perhaps the only country in the world to be a net

carbon sink.” Prime Minister Tobgay, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th Sept 2015

 Brazil & Germany (Joint Statement) “They emphasize that both countries share the long-term vision of holding the increase in global average temperature below 2°C above preindustrial levels, which entails a transition towards energy systems based on renewable energies and the decarbonization of the global economy in the course of the century, bearing in mind needs in terms of adaptation, access to finance, technology and capacity-building as necessary elements to undergo such transition, mindful of the specific needs of developing countries.” Brazilian – German Joint Statement on Climate Change, Brasília, 20th August 2015
China & France (Joint Statement) “3. China and France emphasize that the Paris agreement must send out a clear signal for the world to transition to green and low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable development.

4. With this in mind, they stress the importance of shifting the global economy onto a low carbon path in the course of this century, at a rhythm consistent with strong economic growth and equitable social development, and the below 2°C global temperature goal. They also recognize the importance of progressively transitioning towards clean energy systems, taking into account different natural resources endowments and social preferences. They also underscore the importance of formulating 2050 national low-carbon development strategies.

14. … Both sides also intend to make available their respective 2050 national low-carbon development strategies as early as possible in the next 5 years.

16. France and China underscore the critical role of cities, regions, provinces and businesses in addressing climate change and encourage actions by non-state actors in promoting the long-term transition to a low-carbon, climate resilient and sustainable society.”

 France & Germany (Joint Statement) “In particular, Germany and France call for action in the following areas:
Establishing a shared vision and concrete action for a profound transformation of the world economy and society, to achieve full decarbonisation over the course of this century and reduce emissions by 2050 to a level compatible with the recommendations of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report
, while taking into account the concerns voiced by many vulnerable countries that global warming should be maintained under 2°C or 1,5°C in accordance with the Durban mandate.Our countries will continue to show leadership in this profound transformation of our economies and our societies towards full decarbonization. We are committed, through the Energiewende in Germany and the “transition énergétique” in France, to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by 80 to 95 % in 2050 compared to 1990.”Petersburg Dialogue, May 19 2015

France-Saudi Arabia Joint Communiqué

“The agreement should aim to be in line with keeping the likely increase in global average temperature below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, taking into account the need to ensure sustainable development for all, and recognizing the importance of both mitigation and adaptation. Pursuing this, the agreement should promote the long-term transition of all countries towards low-greenhouse-gas-emitting development, in a manner that is

comprehensive, cost-effective, diversified and resilient in the face of the expected impacts of climate change.” France-Saudi Arabia Joint Commission Joint Communiqué, 14th October 2015

Georgia  “Through all these activities – developing renewable energy resources, promoting energy efficiency, proper management of forests and supporting local climate, action, Georgia will strive to become a carbon neutral country by 2050.”
Statement by the Prime Minister of Georgia at the UN Secretary General Climate Summit, 2014

Reaffirmed goal of national carbon neutrality by Prime Minister Gunlaugsson of Iceland, UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th September 2015

Iceland is aiming to become a fossil fuel free economy, with almost all of our stationary energy coming from renewables, and our efforts towards reaching this goal are underway.”

Statement by Prime Minister Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson at the UN Secretary General Climate Summit, 2014

Mexico Supports the inclusion of a long-term goal to drive emissions to zero in the second half of the century.
Various statements by Mexico in the ADP negotiations, 2014-2015
New Zealand Favours the inclusion of a long-term goal of net zero emissions by 2100.
Various statements by New Zealand in the ADP negotiations, 2014-2015

“In regards to a net zero or climate neutrality long-term goal, they are a tangible output that the public is asking for in their work towards transformational change.” Statement during UNFCCC ADP session, September 2015

“We have to listen to the IPCC. The long term goal of the [Paris] Agreement should be to reach zero net emissions by 2050.”

Statement by Prime Minister Erna Solberg of Norway at the UN Secretary General Climate Summit, 2014

South Africa South Africa supports the phase out of emissions with some degree of differentiation and support and that developed countries take the lead and phase out fully by 2050.

Swedish Prime Minister Löfven reaffirmed the country’s goal of becoming fossil fuel-free to “help break the link between development and fossil fuels”. UN General Assembly Sustainable Development Summit, 25th Sept 2015

Switzerland Switzerland supports the inclusion of a long-term goal which in Paris that would capture… “the vision of a carbon neutral future is widely shared…” Various statements by Switzerland in the ADP negotiations, 2014-2015
US-China (Joint Statement)

“The two sides recognize that Parties’ mitigation efforts are crucial steps in a longer-range effort needed to transition to green and low-carbon economies and they should move in the direction of greater ambition over time. Further, the United States and China underscore the importance of formulating and making available mid- century strategies for the transition to low-carbon economies, mindful of the below 2 degree C global temperature goal. Both sides also emphasize the need for global low-carbon transformation during the course of this century.” US-China Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change, 25th September 2015

Total 124 countries

(Without double counting members in multiple blocs)


Visions for Long-term decarbonisation & Commitments to 1.5 & 2ºC Temperature Limits in INDCs submitted to the UNFCCC

# Country & Date Submitted                         Long-term Goal/Vision
1 Albania                  INDC submitted 24th September 2015 “The  emission  trajectory  of  Albania  allows  to  have  a  smooth  trend  of  achieving  2  tons  of  greenhouse  gas  emissions  per  capita  by  2050,  which  can  be  taken as  a  target  for  global  contraction and  convergence  of  greenhouse gas  emissions. Albania will take into account the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC in its future development and committed to decouple greenhouse gas emissions from its economic growth and embarks on a low emission development pathway.”

Andorra                       INDC submitted 30th April 2015

“For 2030, the planned contributions determined at national level (SCOND) of Andorra are in line with the evolution of representative pathway RCP2.6 concentrations, consistent with the preservation of the increase in global temperature below 2°C during the twenty-first century, compared to values from 1850 to 1900, and consistent with a scenario with stringent mitigation measures, and the maintenance of global concentrations of CO2 eq. in the range 430-480 ppm.”


Angola                INDC submitted 2nd December 2015

“Through this INDC Angola is determined to reduce its emissions trajectory by nearly 50% below the BAU scenario by 2030.”


Antigua and Barbuda             INDC submitted 15th October 2015

“Antigua and Barbuda’s INDC is fair, ambitious, and science-based, and is therefore a responsible contribution toward the global efforts of meeting the objectives of the UNFCCC to limit the average temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels”

Australia              INDC submitted 11th August 2015

“Australia’s intended nationally determined contribution is an ambitious, fair and responsible contribution to global efforts toward meeting the objective of the UNFCCC with the goal of limiting global average temperature rise to below two degrees Celsius.”

Azerbaijan         INDC submitted 29th September 2015

“Azerbaijan believes that the exchange of information between the Parties on the INDC will assist in streamlining joint efforts aimed at the prevention of global temperature increase above 2°C as it is stated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)…”
7 Bahamas            INDC submitted 17th November 2015 “It is within this context that The Bahamas is expected to adapt to the impacts of climate change while at the same time pursue a low carbon pathway in conformity to growing international and public pressure for environmentally friendly development that reduces their “carbon footprint” and exposure to climate change, while also increasing energy security.

It is important to The Bahamas that in order to meet the below 1.5- 2 C objective, each Party must undertake mitigation actions based on the common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in accordance with the Convention.”

8 Bahrain              INDC submitted 24th November 2015 “The Kingdom of Bahrain’s Economic Vision 20301 provides the long-term vision for a policy to diversify the economy. The aim is to inter alia reduce Bahrain’s dependence on oil & gas, focusing on the financial, manufacturing and tourism sectors.”
9 Bangladesh
INDC submitted 25th September 2015
“…this INDC sets out a number of mitigation actions that will help limit the country’s GHG emissions. These mitigation actions will play a key role in realising the move to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy and to becoming a middle-income country by 2021 whilst ensuring that it will not cross the average per capita emissions of the developing world. Bangladesh recognises that in order to meet the 2 degrees objective all countries will need to undertake mitigation in line with the IPCC conclusion that meeting 2 degrees requires global reductions to reduce by 40 to 70% global anthropogenic GHG emissions reductions by 2050 compared to 2010. Bangladesh’s approach is driven by the long-term goal announced by its Prime Minister that its per capita GHG emissions will not exceed the average for developing countries.”
10 Barbados            INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “All of the country’s identified mitigation actions are being targeted by the INDC, which will result in per capita emissions of 4.8 tonnes CO2e in 2030 (compared to 6.6 tonnes CO2e in 2008), consistent with the projected global average emissions per capita in 2030 required to meet the 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels target.”Barbados also reiterates its support for “the CARICOM Declaration For Climate Action, [which] calls for a legally binding commitment at COP21 for enhanced provisions for vulnerable countries and the adoption of the limiting of long-term the global average temperature increase to below 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels;”
11 Belarus                        INDC submitted 25th September 2015 “The Republic of Belarus supports the collective efforts of the Parties to the UNFCCC to achieve the major milestone of this century – keeping the average global temperature rise below two degrees celsius as compared to the pre-industrial period.”
12 Bhutan                INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “Bhutan intends to remain carbon neutral where emission of greenhouse gases will not exceed carbon sequestration by our forests, which is estimated at 6.3 million tons of CO2. Bhutan remains committed to a globally collective effort in addressing climate change and keeping the planet safe for all life, and strives towards an ambitious and legally binding agreement to keep global temperature increase at safe levels of not more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.”
13 Bolivia                          INDC submitted 12th October 2015

“Bolivia has proposed a fair and equitable sharing of atmospheric space, taking into account the capacity for regeneration and protection of the integrity of Mother Earth. To not exceed 1.5 degree temperature by 2050, the budget set by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is 650 GtCO2.”

14 Brazil                   INDC submitted 28th September 2015 “Consistent with the long-term vision of holding the increase in global average temperature below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, Brazil will strive for a transition towards energy systems based on renewable sources and the decarbonization of the global economy by the end of the century, in the context of sustainable development and access to the financial and technological means necessary for this transition.”
15 Burundi               INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “In the medium and long term, the government plans to initiate a transition to a green economy.”
16 Burkina Faso      INDC submitted 28th September 2015 “The entire international community expects this agreement is universal and sustainable. It will provide economic and political signals, so that the economic development model the planet agrees on is a new path, leading to carbon neutrality before the end of the century, as well as compliance with the objective of 2°C…While being fair and ambitious, this transparent INDC wants and aspires to achieve the objectives of the Climate Convention by aligning with the objective of 2°C and considering the need to limit cumulative emissions over time to almost zero.”
17 Cabo Verde          INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “Cabo Verde is firmly committed to a global low-carbon transformation, which decouples economic growth from emissions, provides for the sustainable use of natural resources, limits average global warming to 2 degrees Celsius, with the ultimate goal of achieving 1.5 degree Celsius in the long-term. At the domestic level, Cabo Verde has laid the relevant groundwork to achieve energy independence on 100% renewable sources…”
18 Cameroon          INDC submitted 1st October 2015 “Reducing GHG emissions by 32% compared to a scenario reference for the target year 2035”
19 Central African Republic              INDC submitted 28th September 2015 “The Central African Republic aspires to reduce its emissions by 5% and 25%, respectively, in the 2030 and 2050 horizons in comparison to its reference BaU emissions and to increase its sequestration potential. [This is] A double approach (results and actions) optimising the Central African Republic’s approach to the objective of limiting the increase in the global temperature to 2°C.”
20 China                   INDC submitted 30th June 2015 “To act on climate change in terms of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing climate resilience, is not only driven by China’s domestic needs for sustainable development in ensuring its economic security, energy security, ecological security, food security as well as the safety of people’s life and property and to achieve sustainable development, but also driven by its sense of responsibility to fully engage in global governance, to forge a community of shared destiny for humankind and to promote common development for all human beings. Together with other Parties, China will promote global green low-carbon transformation and development path innovation.”
21 Colombia            INDC submitted 9th September 2015

“…for Colombia to develop and ensure its peace, equity and education objectives, and to sustain them in the long term, it is essential to identify and utilize, opportunities to increase competitiveness, productivity and efficiency following a low-carbon pathway in the different sectors of the national economy. Structuring a resilient and low-carbon economy is aligned with national development priorities including overcoming poverty in all its dimensions.Colombia’s mitigation target seeks to achieve a per capita emissions level of nearly 4.6 Ton CO2eq/capita by 2030. … consistent with the pathway established by the United Nations Environment Program (Emissions Gap Report, 2014) which encourages countries to achieve the goal of avoiding a global temperature rise of more than 2°C.”

22 Comoros             INDC submitted 17th September 2015 “Despite its low contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, Comoros wants to pursue the goal it set to be a carbon sink and participate in the global effort to decarbonise the planet.”
23 Cook Islands               INDC submitted 20th November 2015 “The Cook Islands has carved a pathway of low carbon development to strengthen climate resilience and further reduce its carbon footprint to achieve its national vision, which is ‘to enjoy the highest quality of life consistent with the aspirations of our people, and in harmony with our culture and environment’. The Cook Islands believes that by aspiring to its national vision it is striving to keep the overall global average temperature rise below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

The Cook Islands is committed to a future powered by renewable energy with targets of 50% of islands transformed from diesel based to renewable sourced electricity by 2015, to 100% coverage by 2020.”

24 Costa Rica          INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “First, Costa Rica would like to reaffirm its aspiration of becoming a Carbon Neutral economy starting year 2021, as a culmination of its voluntary, pre-2020 action. In this National Contribution, the date of 2021 will become the turning point Costa Rica’s emissions, as a continuation of its voluntary action and a landmark in the path towards de-carbonizing the economy. Second, the country is committed to a maximum of 9,374,000 T CO2eq net emissions by 2030, with proposed emissions per capita of 1.73 net tons by 2030, 1.19 Net Tons per Capita by 2050 and -0.27 Net Tons per Capita by 2100. This [sic] numbers are consistent with the necessary global path to comply with 2°C goal.”
25 Democratic Republic of Congo  INDC submitted 18th August 2015 The DRC has a development vision spanning 2012-2060. By 2060 it aims to be a developed country with a green economy.
26 Djibouti              INDC submitted 14th August 2015

“The planned unconditional level of emissions reductions, planned under the unconditional scenario, is 40% compared to the business-as- usual scenario for 2030. This ambitious commitment will support other country’s commitments so as to make a collective contribution to the global objective of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C. For the Republic of Djibouti, upholding this objective will be essential, given the country’s heavy exposure to the impact of climate change.”

27 Dominica            INDC submitted 29th September 2015 National goal to transform Dominica into a ‘low-carbon, climate-resilient country’
28 Dominican Republic  INDC submitted 18th August 2015

“As a highly vulnerable country, the Dominican Republic aspires to achieve a global agreement that limits the increase in global average temperature to 2°C, with progressive reduction to 1.5°C, based on the scientific consensus.”

 29 Ecuador              INDC submitted 13 October 2015

“In striving to reach the objective of keeping the global temperature rise below 1.5 or 2 degrees Celsius in comparison to preindustrial levels, Ecuador has initiated a process of decarbonizing its energy and productive matrices under which mitigation and adaptation actions are developed.”

30 El Salvador                INDC submitted 17th November 2015

“The country is committed to the adoption of a new binding agreement applicable to all Parties, and hopes that under the new legal instrument the increase in global average temperature is limited to 1.5°C.”

31 Equatorial Guinea  INDC submitted 21st September 2015 “Purpose of the Contribution: Establish mechanisms for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the long term; placing the progression of countries in combating climate change in the period 2030-2050 in line with the post 2050 history, in order to contain the increase in global warming below 2°C compared to the preindustrial period. Equatorial Guinea’s ambition is to reduce emissions 20% by 2030, relative to 2010 levels; to achieve a reduction of 50% by 2050.”
32 Eritrea                INDC submitted 24th September 2015 “The latest climate science indicates the total amount of emission reduction required to realise the likely chance of limiting global warming to less than 2ºC, the goal adopted by the UNFCCC. To achieve this goal, global emissions must peak by 2020 and net GHG emissions must be phased out over the long term.… Eritrea envisages achieving its goals of becoming climate change responsive country with equitable economic growth by ensuring a rapid transition to a low-carbon economy.”

Ethiopia               INDC submitted 10th June 2015

“In the long term, Ethiopia intends to achieve its vision of becoming carbon-neutral, with the mid-term goal of attaining middle income status.”

34 European Union (Submitted by Latvia on behalf of 28 member states)  INDC submitted 6th March 2015

“The EU and its 28 Member States are fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiating process with a view to adopting a global legally binding agreement applicable to all Parties at the Paris Conference in December 2015 in line with the below 2°C objective. It is in line with the EU objective, in the context of necessary reductions according to the IPCC by developed countries as a group, to reduce its emissions by 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990. Furthermore, it is consistent with the need for at least halving global emissions by 2050 compared to 1990.”

35 Federated States of Micronesia         INDC submitted 24th November 2015

“FSM would like to stress that the very survival of many SIDS is at stake without ambitious global emissions reductions that will ensure the stabilisation of global temperature rise below 1.5 degree Celsius by 2100.”

36 Fiji                        INDC submitted 5th November 2015

“The target is for the renewable energy share in electricity generation to approach 100% by 2030 from around 60% in 2013.”

37 Gabon                  INDC submitted 31st March 2015 Gabon states its INDC is applicable to the period 2010 – 2025, but it will extend its analyses to 2030 and 2050 ahead of COP21.
38 Gambia                INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“The Republic of The Gambia is fully committed to the multilateral process under the UNFCCC and will continue to work with all Parties to negotiate and adopt a New Climate Agreement in Paris in December 2015 that will be in line with keeping global warming below 2°C to 1.5oC.”

39 Georgia                        INDC submitted 24th September 2015

“Georgia is fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process with a view to adopting a global legally binding agreement at the Paris Conference in December 2015 applicable to all Parties in line with the below 2°C objective.”

40 Ghana                  INDC submitted 23rd September 2015 “The INDC is anchored in the anticipated 40-year long-term development, the GSGDA II, National Climate Change Policy as well as the Low Carbon Development Strategy. The inclusion of both mitigation and adaptation in the INDC resonate with the medium-term development agenda (Ghana Shared Growth Development Agenda II – GSGDA 2), the anticipated 40-year socio-economic transformational plan and the universal sustainable development goals.”
41 Grenada              INDC Submitted 30th September 2015 “Grenada is committed to a low carbon emission development pathway…”
42 Guinea Bissau    INDC submitted 20th September 2015 “In the medium and long term Guinea-Bissau undertakes, provided there is financial, technological and capacity building support from the international community starting from the new climate agreement and green fund, to: [achieve] 80% renewable energy in the national energy mix by 2030…”
43 Haiti                    INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“Through this contribution, Haiti means: (i) improve its resilience to disasters related to climate change; (ii) respond to loss and damage extreme weather events and (iii) contribute to the global effort limitation the increase in global temperature below 2°C.”

44 Honduras           INDC Submitted 30th September 2015

“The Republic of Honduras is committed to adopting a legally binding new agreement applicable to all Parties, and hopes that under the new legal instrument the increase in global average temperature to 1.5°C limit.”

45 Iceland               INDC submitted 30th June 2015

“Iceland is committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process towards adopting a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention, applicable to all Parties, in line with the objective of keeping global warming below 2°C.”

46 Indonesia            INDC submitted 24th September 2015 “Indonesia’s INDC outlines the country’s transition to a low carbon future by describing the enhanced actions and the necessary enabling environment during the 2015-19 period that will lay the foundation for more ambitious goals beyond 2020, contributing to the concerted effort to prevent 2ºC increase in global temperature. For 2020 and beyond, Indonesia envisions achieving archipelagic climate resilience as a result of comprehensive adaptation and mitigation programs and disaster risk reduction strategies.”
47 Israel                   INDC submitted 29th September 2015

“Israel is committed to working towards an ambitious international agreement on climate change, applicable to all Parties and in line with the objective of an average global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius.”

48 Japan                    INDC submitted 7th July 2015 “Towards achieving the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC, in order to hold the increase in global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius, it is indispensable to take measures for long-term emission reductions globally.”
49 Jordan                  INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “Jordan’s very diverse spectrum of actions and outcomes of commitment with emphasis on those aiming at reducing its emissions by 14 % by 2030 relative to a business as usual levels puts this small country on a low carbon development track that is in line with the recommendations of the IPCC AR5 to reduce global emissions by minus 40 to 70 percent by 2050 below 2010 levels.”
50 Kazakhstan        INDC submitted 28th September 2015 “Kazakhstan’s long term objectives is to become one of the 30 most developed countries in the world by 2050. Following a path of low carbon economy growth Kazakhstan adopted the law “On energy saving and energy efficiency”, “On Supporting the Use of Renewable Energy Sources” aiming at greater use of renewable energy sources. The objectives set, will contribute to sustainable economic development and enable Kazakhstan to enter the path of low-carbon “green” development, and contribute to the achievement of the longterm global goal – to keep increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius.”
51 Kyrgyzstan         INDC submitted 29th September 2015 “…the long term vision of the Kyrgyz Republic is to limit the per capita GHG emissions to a very low level of 1.58 t CO2 by 2050 in line with 2ºC objective.”
52 Lao PDR              INDC submitted 1ST October 2015 “…the Government of Lao PDR intends to implement policies that support the long term goal of limiting global GHG emissions in line with the objectives of the UNFCCC and the findings of the IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report.”
53 Lebanon              INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “Lebanon aims to embark on a long-term low-emission and climate resilient development trajectory to ensure a sustainable future for its population, despite its current challenging national circumstances.”
54 Liberia                INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“Liberia’s INDC presents a context for the global effort to create a new international climate agreement by the end of the Paris Climate Summit in December 2015, in order to limit temperature increase to 2°C. The long-term strategy of Liberia is to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.”

55 Mali                      INDC submitted 29th September 2015

“Mali is a carbon sink and will remain beyond 2030. But the Mali considers that it must contribute to its full potential to limit collective ambition by the end of the century the increase global temperature below 2°C compared to the industrial age to limit in the country, the negative impacts of climate change on agriculture and the occurrence of natural hazards (droughts, floods, bushfires).”

56 Mexico                INDC, submitted 30th March 2015

“Mexico has expressed its willingness to achieve a legally binding agreement with the participation of all Parties in order to keep the global average atmospheric temperature below 2ºC. This INDC is consistent with Mexico’s pathway to reduce 50% of emissions by the year 2050, with respect to the year 2000, as mandated by the LGCC.” [LGCC: Mexico’s General Law on Climate Change]

57 Moldova              INDC submitted 25th September 2015 “National commitments are well in line with the emissions pathways towards 2050 that correspond to keeping global warming below 2ºC compared to preindustrial levels.”
58 Monaco                INDC submitted 4th August 2015 “At the Climate Summit convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 23 September 2014, H.S.H. Prince Albert II recalled the target that the Principality of Monaco set itself to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020 and 80% by 2050, compared with the reference year, while achieving carbon neutrality by that date. … By adopting a target which goes beyond the reduction requirements stated by the IPCC at the global level and by supporting the development of the latest technologies, the Principality of Monaco wishes to demonstrate its full commitment to this collective process.

The country’s hope is that through the commitment of all Parties, it will be possible to achieve the target consistent with restricting the average rise in global temperatures to less than 2°C compared with pre- industrial levels, and if possible, to less than 1.5°C.”

59 Mongolia              INDC submitted 24th September 2015

“Mongolia is fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process towards adopting at COP21 a legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention, applicable to all Parties, in line with confining global warming below 2°C. Mongolia is committed to the decarbonisation of its growing economy and intends to reduce its emissions intensity…”

60 Montenegro       INDC submitted 23rd September 2015

“Montenegro will take into account the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC in its future development and will be committed to decouple greenhouse gas emissions from its economic growth and embarks on a low emission development pathway. The INDC submitted by Montenegro is fair and ambitious because it aims to secure significant reduction of its greenhouse gas emissions while satisfies the country’s need for economic development, allowing a feasible pathway for long-term decarbonisation.”

61 Morocco             INDC submitted 5th June 2015

“Morocco’s vision to address climate change is as follows: Make its territory and civilization more resilient to climate change while ensuring a rapid transition to a low-carbon economy.”

62 Myanmar           INDC submitted 28th September 2015

“…countries have the opportunity to lay the foundation for a new climate agreement that sets the path towards maintaining temperature change below 2oC relative to pre-industrial levels.”

63 Namibia              INDC submitted 29th September 2015 “The global goal is to meet the ultimate objective of the Convention namely, the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system and limit global warming to below 2ºC and Namibia is willing and strongly committed to contribute its fair share in this global objective.
The country is geared towards a progressive decoupling of carbon emissions from economic growth to match the low carbon pathway embedded in its policies and strategies. Namibia aims at a reduction of about 89% of its GHG emissions at the 2030 time horizon compared to the BAU scenario.”
64 Nauru                 INDC submitted 17th November 2015

“With only around 10,000 persons, Nauru has very limited capacity to respond to a global threat of this magnitude. … In this respect its main concern is adaptation. This concern is predicated on projected temperature increases due to existing and inevitable near term future levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which will be sufficient to cause global warming well beyond the 1.5 degrees Celsius that is considered safe for SIDS. This temperature increase will put in place an inevitable sea level rise that will be an existential threat to the Nauruan population.”

 65 Nepal                  INDC submitted 11th February 2016 “The country as a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) pursues and supports efforts to limit the increase in temperature to well below 2°C leading to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels in order to reduce the risks and adverse impacts of climate change.

By 2050, Nepal will achieve 80% electrification through renewable energy sources having appropriate energy mix. Nepal will also reduce its dependency on fossil fuels by 50%.”

66 New Zealand      INDC submitted 7th July 2015  “New Zealand also has a longer term target of reducing emissions to 50 percent below 1990 levels by 2050”
67 Niger                    INDC submitted 29th September 2015  National Objectives: “…contribute to the reduction of global GHG emissions (objective 2°C by 2050)…”
68 Nigeria               INDC submitted 28th November 2015 “Nigeria believes a Paris agreement should ensure that the collective mitigation ambition is adequate to keep global temperatures below 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by the end of the century.”
69 Niue                     INDC submitted 25th November 2015 “The Niue Strategic Energy Road Map (NiSERM) 2015-2025 outlines Niue’s aspiration to meet 80% of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by 2025, which would in turn reduce the country’s high reliance on imported fossil fuel.”
70 Norway                INDC submitted 27th March 2015 According to the broad political agreement in 2012 on climate change, the aim is that Norway will be carbon-neutral in 2050. As part of an ambitious global climate agreement where other developed nations also undertake ambitious commitments, Norway will adopt a binding goal of carbon neutrality no later than in 2030. This means that Norway will commit to achieving emission reductions abroad equivalent to Norwegian emissions in 2030. Norway’s long term goal is to become a low emission society by 2050. Norway’s commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 is well in line with the emissions pathways towards 2050 that correspond to keeping global warming below 2°C.”
71 Papua New Guinea   INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “…PNG will opt for a national target in the electricity sector in terms of becoming carbon free by a 2030 target date.”
72 Peru                      INDC submitted 28th September 2015 “Peru has defined its mitigation commitment in order to participate in the collective effort to keep global warming below the 1.5ºC – 2ºC.
With respect to the negotiation towards a new climate agreement for the post 2020 period, Peru supports a global agreement that is a short and concise document by which a long-term system is established with legally binding obligations for all countries. Our country considers that the agreement should contain a global vision to be subscribed by all Parties and that is aimed to be achieved through individual and collective efforts in accordance with the principles of the Convention. A global goal for mitigation should be included. This goal will be met through the efforts of all countries in accordance to science and the principles of differentiated equity.”
73 Philippines        INDC submitted 1st October 2015

“The country however views the need to peak its emissions as an opportunity to transition as early as it can to an efficient, resilient, adaptive, sustainable clean energy-driven economy, and it is determined to do so with partners from the global community.”

74 Republic of Armenia             INDC submitted 29th September 2015

“INDC underlying principle:
1) Limit global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to such a level that the global average temperature does not exceed 2ºC…  The Republic of Armenia strives to achieve ecosystem neutral GHG emissions in 2050 (2.07 tons/per capita annual)…”


Republic of Congo  INDC submitted 29th September 2015

“A key objective of this conference is to achieve the adoption of a legally binding agreement covering all States Parties to limit the increase in global temperature below 2°C.”

76 Republic of Korea  INDC submitted 30th June 2015 “Despite the challenges, Korea has set a target for 2030, which is expected to be in line with the recommendations of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by 40-70% from 2010 levels by 2050.”
77 Republic of the Marshall Islands INDC submitted 21st July 2015 “These targets … put RMI on a trajectory to nearly halve GHG emissions between 2010 and 2030, with a view to achieving net zero GHG emissions by 2050, or earlier if possible.”
78 Russia                 INDC submitted 1st April 2015

“Reducing GHG emissions by 25-30% from 1990 levels by 2030 will allow the Russian Federation to step on the path of low-carbon development compatible with the long-term objective of the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius.”

79 Rwanda                INDC submitted 2nd December 2015 “By 2050, development will be achieved with low carbon domestic energy resources and practices, reducing the country’s contribution to climate change while allowing it to be independent of imported oil for power generation.”
 80 Saint Lucia                  INDC submitted 17th November 2015 “Conscious of the existential threat posed by climate change to Saint Lucia and indeed most SIDS, the government is steadfast in its conviction that global mitigation efforts should focus on stabilizing global GHG emissions at levels that will limit increases in global average temperatures to well below 1.50C above preindustrial levels.

Target for Electricity Generation:

  • 35% Renewable Energy Target by 2025
  • 50% by 2030 based on a mix of geothermal, wind and solar energy sources.”
81 Samoa                  INDC submitted 1st October 2015 “Samoa is committed to reducing its GHG emissions from the Electricity sub sector through the adoption of a 100% Renewable energy target for electricity generation through to the year 2025.”
82 San Marino        INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“The Republic of San Marino, as a party of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is fully committed to the negotiating process aimed at reaching a global legally binding agreement applicable to all Parties at the Paris Conference in December 2015 in line with keeping global warming below 2°C.”

83 Seychelles
INDC submitted 25th September 2015

“Seychelles’ long-term vision is to minimise the impacts of climate change through concerted and proactive action at all levels of society. This vision is nested in the country’s broader aspiration of sustainable development: finding strategies to realise the nation’s economic, social and cultural potential through an innovative, knowledge-led and gender-sensitive approach. The Energy Policy that was proposed in 2010 has set a target for 15% of energy supply to be met from renewable energy sources in 2030. In the long term, the Policy envisages that 100% of energy supply will be from renewable energy sources.”

84  Sierra Leone      INDC submitted 1st October 2015 “…this INDC intends to maintain the emission levels of Sierra Leone relatively Low (close to the world average of 7.58 MtCO2e) by 2035 or neutral by 2050 by reducing her carbon footprint and by following green growth pathways in all economic sectors.”
85 Solomon Islands    INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “With appropriate international assistance, Solomon Islands can reduce its emissions by more than 50% by 2050.”
86 South Africa      INDC submitted 25th September 2015 “With regard to an ultimate solution to the global challenge of climate change, South Africa is firmly committed to working with others to ensure temperature increases are kept well below 2°C above pre- industrial levels, which could include a further revision of the temperature goal to below 1.5°C in light of emerging science, …
Near zero emissions of CO2 and other long-lived GHGs are needed in the second half of the century to avoid even greater impacts that are beyond adaptation capability. The solution must lie in collective action.”
87 South Sudan              INDC submitted 23rd November 2015 “As a post-conflict nation and one of the least developed countries, South Sudan is embarking on a sustainable development path and would like to employ the latest clean technologies to realize a low carbon, climate-resilient development outcome.”
88 St Vincent & The Grenadines                INDC submitted 18th November 2015 “The proposed, unconditional contribution would result in a reduction in projected per capita emissions28 to 4.3 tonnes CO2e in 2025, which is less than the global average of 5.3 tonnes CO2e emissions per capita in 2025, the level required to be consistent with returning warming to below 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.”
89 Sudan                  INDC submitted 10th November 2015

“ Sudan’s INDCs is depended on various conditions, including:
• Reaching the long-term temperature goal that is currently set at below 2°C and subject to be revised at COP 21;”

90 Suriname            INDC submitted 29th October 2015

“The Republic of Suriname is committed to playing its part in the global fight against climate change. As a developing country with a total population of 541,638 and abundant natural resources, Suriname has remained carbon negative.”

91 Swaziland          INDC submitted 29th September 2015 “Swaziland remains committed to the transition towards a low carbon and climate resilient future.”
92 Switzerland        INDC submitted 27th February 2015 “The Government of Switzerland has formulated an indicative goal to reduce emissions by 2050 by 70 to 85 percent compared to 1990 including use of international credits as well as the vision to reduce per capita emissions in Switzerland to 1 – 1.5 t CO2eq in the longer term. Switzerland’s commitment to reduce emissions by 50 percent by 2030 relative to 1990 levels puts Switzerland on an emission development pathway that corresponds with the recommendations of the IPCC AR5 to reduce global emissions by minus 40 to 70 percent by 2050 below 2010 levels.

Switzerland is committed to continue to contribute its fair share in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in view of holding the increase in global average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius and to continue to act on the forefront of climate change.”

93 Tajikistan           INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, as compared to 1990, by its own and ongoing joint efforts, as well as at the expense of additional new funding and technology transfer on the part of the international community, will enable the country to take the path towards sustainable “green” development which is consistent with the Convention’s goal – to prevent global warming of more than 2ºC.”

94 Tanzania
INDC submitted 29th September 2015
“For the global effort to avoid dangerous anthropogenic climate change, a below 2ºC scenario requires serious mitigation actions including a “substantial deviation from baseline” by 2050 in all developing countries.”
95 Thailand             INDC submitted 1st October 2015 “…recognizing that long-term and continuous effort is required to address climate change, Thailand has formulated the National Strategic Plan on Climate Change B.E. 2551-2555 (2008- 2012) and the Climate Change Master Plan B.E. 2558-2593 (2015-2050), providing a continuous framework for measures and actions in the long-term. The Climate Change Master Plan has laid out a vision to achieve climate-resilient and low-carbon growth in line with sustainable development path by 2050…”

The former
Republic of Macedonia        INDC submitted 4th August 2015

“The Republic of Macedonia, as a party of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is fully committed to the negotiating process aimed at reaching a global agreement applicable to all Parties at the Paris Conference in December 2015. According to this Agreement, all Parties should be able to give their contribution on a fair and equitable basis and in line with their national circumstances, towards achieving the global objective of stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level which would prevent an increase in the global temperature of more than 2°С.”


Togo                    INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“Although it is one of the least developed countries and has high needs in terms of development and adaptation, Togo nonetheless wants to contribute to international efforts to limit the temperature rise to 2°C by implementing mitigation measures.”


Tonga                  INDC submitted 4th December 2015

Tonga has a 2020 target of 50% renewable electricity, with a view to extending it to 100% renewable electricity by 2030.

99 Turkey
INDC submitted 30th September 2015
“Up to 21 percent reduction in GHG emissions from the BAU level by 2030 will enable Turkey to step on low-carbon development pathways compatible with the long-term objective of limiting the increase in global temperature below 2ºC.”
100 Turkmenistan    INDC submitted 30th September 2015 “Stabilization or beginning of reducing GHG emissions by 2030 will allow Turkmenistan to enter the trajectory of low-carbon development, compatible with long-term global goal – not exceeding the 2-degree rise in temperature levels.”
101 Tuvalu                 INDC submitted 27th November 2015 “Tuvalu commits to reduction of emissions of green-house gases from the electricity generation (power) sector by 100%, i.e. almost zero emissions by 2025.This would mean almost zero use of fossil fuel for power generation. This is also in line with our ambition to keep the warming to less than 1.5⁰C, if there is a chance to save atoll nations like Tuvalu.”
102 Uganda               INDC submitted 16th October 2015

“The actions reflected in this Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) have been derived through a consultative process and reflect a national resolve to respond to the call by the global community to initiate domestic preparations for nationally determined contributions towards curbing temperature rise to below 2°C by the end of the century.”

103 United States of America
INDC submitted 31st March 2015
 “Substantial global emission reductions are needed to keep the global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius, and the 2025 target is consistent with a path to deep decarbonization. This target is consistent with a straight line emission reduction pathway from 2020 to deep, economy-wide emission reductions of 80% or more by 2050. The target is part of a longer range, collective effort to transition to a low-carbon global economy as rapidly as possible.”
104 Uruguay
INDC submitted 29th September 2015
 “Uruguay expects to be a net CO2 sink by 2030.”
105 Vanuatu
INDC submitted 29th September 2015
 “The mitigation contribution for the Vanuatu INDC submission is a sector specific target of transitioning to close to 100% renewable energy in the electricity sector by 2030. This target would replace nearly all fossil fuel requirements for electricity generation in the country and be consistent with the National Energy Road Map (NERM) target of 65% renewable energy by 2020.”
106 Viet nam            INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“Viet Nam supports achieving a legal agreement with the participation of all Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in order to keep the global average atmospheric temperature increase, since pre-industrial times, at below 2oC.”

107 Zambia               INDC submitted 29th September 2015

“During implementation of these programs, Government will engage all relevant stakeholders to achieve the emission reduction target as part of the country’s contribution to attainment of 2 degree goal.”

108 Zimbabwe          INDC submitted 30th September 2015

“Zimbabwe seeks to contribute to an ambitious goal of limiting temperature rise to below 1.5oC.”

INDCs Submitted to the UNFCCC Without Long Term Goal/Vision

109 Afghanistan  INDC submitted 13th October 2015
110 Algeria INDC submitted 30th September 2015
111 Argentina INDC submitted 1st October 2015
112 Belize INDC submitted 30th September 2015
113 Benin INDC submitted 30th September 2015
114 Bosnia & Herzegovina INDC submitted 8th October 2015
115 Botswana INDC submitted 30th September 2015
116 Brunei INDC submitted 1st December 2015
117 Cambodia INDC submitted 30th September 2015
118 Canada INDC submitted 15th May 2015
119 Chad INDC submitted 30th September 2015
120 Chile INDC submitted 5th January 2016
121 Côte d’Ivoire INDC submitted 30th September 2015
122 Cuba INDC submitted 19th November 2015
123 Egypt

INDC submitted 11th November 2015

124 Guatemala INDC submitted 29th September 2015
125 Guinea INDC submitted 30th September 2015
126 Guyana INDC submitted 29th September 2015
127 India INDC submitted 1st October 2015
128 Iran INDC submitted 19th November 2015
129 Jamaica INDC submitted 27th November 2015
130 Kenya INDC submitted 23rd July 2015
131 Kiribati INDC submitted 26th September 2015
132 Lesotho INDC submitted 30th September 2015
133 Liechtenstein INDC submitted 22nd April 2015
134 Madagascar INDC submitted 24th September 2015
135 Malawi INDC submitted 8th October 2015
13 6 Malaysia INDC submitted 18th January 2016
137 Maldives INDC submitted 29th September 2015
138 Mauritania INDC submitted 30th September 2015
139 Mauritius INDC submitted 28th September 2015
140 Mozambique INDC submitted 1st October 2015
141 Oman INDC submitted 19th October 2015
142 Pakistan

INDC submitted 12th November 2015

143 Palau

INDC submitted 28th November 2015

144 Paraguay INDC submitted 30th September 2015
145 Qatar INDC submitted 19th November 2015
146 Sao Tome & Principe  INDC submitted 30th September 2015
147 Saudi Arabia

INDC submitted 10th November 2015

148 Senegal  INDC submitted 26th September 2015
149 Serbia  INDC submitted 30th June 2015
150 Singapore   INDC submitted 3rd July 2015
151 Somalia

INDC submitted 17th November 2015

152 Saint Kitts and Nevis

INDC submitted 12th December 2015

153 Trinidad and Tobago INDC submitted 21st October 2015
154 Tunisia INDC submitted 16th August 2015
155 Ukraine INDC submitted 30th September 2015
156 United Arab Emirates INDC submitted 20th October 2015
157 Yemen INDC submitted 21st November 2015

Total of 157 Submissions Covering 184 countries*

*28 EU Member States submit 1 INDC


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With an esteemed panel of speakers this side-event examines the global response to what climate science is telling us:  to stabilise our climate system and stay below the internationally agreed limit of 2ºC with high certainty, we must rapidly eliminate man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and phase-out fossil fuel use almost entirely by around mid-century. […]

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Track 0 founder, Farhana Yamin, was invited to present why actors from all sectors are creating such great momentum for incorporating an ambitious, aspirational long-term goal for zero emissions in the current negotiations for a new international climate treaty at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) CCXG conference on 17-18 March 2015. See […]

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Supporting countries

The countries who are have already expressed support for a long term goal being part of the 2015 Agreement include 48 Least Developed Countries (LDCs), represented by Nepal, AILAC (Costa Rica, Columbia, Peru, Chile, Dominican Republic and Guatamala), the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Grenada, Switzerland, Mexico, Germany and Norway. Many of these countries have […]

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The game-changer: Commiting to zero by 2050 directs actions to meet the 2C goal

Many individuals, companies and countries around the world have made a commitment to being carbon neutral. This means taking action to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to zero – and then ‘offsetting’ an equivalent amount of any remaining emissions. An attractive aspect of carbon neutrality is that it…

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